Category Archives: Human trafficking

Docuticker round up of criminal Justice-related reports

ex libris gul law reports collectionRound-up of reports featured on Docuticker in the last few weeks:

More Men, More Crime: Evidence from China’s One-Child Policy (published by Institute for the Study of Labor December 2007):

…This paper exploits two unique features of the Chinese experience: the change in the sex ratio was both large and mainly in response to the implementation of the one-child policy. Using annual province-level data covering the years 1988-2004, we find that a 0.01 increase in the sex ratio raised the violent and property crime rates by some 5-6%, suggesting that the increasing maleness of the young adult population may account for as much as a third of the overall rise in crime. [PDF available]

Law enforcement responses to trafficking in persons: challenges and emerging good practice (published by Australian Institute of Criminology, December 2007):

…This paper focuses on the challenges that may confront law enforcement officials in any country in their efforts to detect trafficking, identify victims, investigate offences and contribute to the successful prosecution of offenders. Drawing on international experience, this paper identifies some examples of emerging good practice that can help to overcome these challenges, and contribute to the effectiveness of the larger criminal justice response to trafficking. [PDF available]

Criminal justice responses to drug and drug-related offending: are they working? (published by Australian Institute of Criminology, December 2007):

…Over the past seven or eight years, almost every state and territory has implemented a range of so-called drug diversion programs that operate at different points along the criminal justice continuum. … If these initiatives are achieving their objectives, then such costs should be more than offset by the benefits accruing to the community through a reduction in illicit drug use and related offending, improved health and wellbeing for former drug dependent offenders and reduced case loads for the criminal justice system. The key question is ‘Are these programs working: are they, in fact, meeting their primary aims?’ This report attempts to provide some insight into these questions by giving an overview of key findings from national and state-based evaluations that have been undertaken of these initiatives. It will summarise the outcome-based results currently available, identify the knowledge gaps that still exist and point to areas where further work is required to provide a more definitive insight into the value of these programs. [PDF available]

Violent Crime in America: A Tale of Two Cities (published by Police Executive Research Forum, November 2007). From the Overview:

…early indications for 2007 suggest that the countermeasures are beginning to have an impact on crime, according to PERF’s latest survey. When the same sample of 56 jurisdictions used in PERF’s previous surveys are analyzed, aggregate crime levels reported by police agencies for the first six months of 2007 show overall reductions in homicides and other violent crimes. Importantly, however, there are still many jurisdictions reporting increases in violent crime. … We are calling this latest violent crime report “A Tale of Two Cities” to reflect this volatility of crime patterns. [PDF available.]

Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons Reported by Inmates, 2007 (published by Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2007):

An estimated 4.5 percent of state and federal prisoners reported a sexual victimization in a survey mandated by the Prison Rape Elimination Act, the Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics announced today… The survey was conducted in 146 state and federal prisons between April and August 2007, with a sample of 23,398 inmates. [PDF available]

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: What Do We Know and What Do We Do About It? (published by National Institute of Justice, December 2007):

Much investigation remains to be done regarding the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). As with other “low visibility” crimes, there is a lurking “dark figure” of unreported cases. Moreover, little reliable information exists about the types of people who exploit children in this way. Research has revealed that CSEC takes place at three levels: local exploitation by one or a few individuals, small regional networks involving multiple adults and children, and large national or international sex crime networks where children are traded and sold as commodities. [PDF available]

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New reports: round-up of reports from the US, Canada and Australia

ex libris gul law reports collectionA selection of recently-published criminal justice-related reports from the US, Canada and Australia:

Black Victims of Violent Crime, published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, full Report (pdf):

Presents findings about violent crime experienced by non-Hispanic blacks… Highlights include the following: Blacks were victims of an estimated 805,000 nonfatal violent crimes and of about 8,000 homicides in 2005; blacks accounted for 13% of the U.S. population in 2005, but were victims in 15% of all nonfatal violent crimes and nearly half of all homicides; during the 5-year period from 2001 to 2005, the average annual rate of nonfatal violent victimization against blacks was 29 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. For whites the rate was 23 per 1,000, and for Hispanics, 24 per 1,000.

Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups, published by the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, full report(pdf):

Sexual orientation and gender identity are not currently covered by federal hate crime laws. This analysis compares victimization rates for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals with groups already covered by hate crime laws. Results indicate that the hate crime rate against lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals is comparable to the rate of hate crimes against already protected groups.

Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities 2006, published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, full report (pdf):

Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2006, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities…The report provides an in-depth analysis of substantiated incidents, including where the incidents occur, time of day, number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims, and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators.

Control or Regulation of Prostitution in Canada – Implications for the Police – Royal Canadian Mounted Police research and evaluation report:

In the literature the police perspective [on health and safety of sex workers and the current legal situation in Canada] is too often based on traditional, unfounded, unproven and biased opinions of prostitutes and prostitution. This is problematic for legislators, who require objective and well documented information. This study is a first step in clarifying that relationship. It examines issues relating to legal options, their impact on prostitution and their impact on the police.

Human trafficking to Australia: a research challenge, published by the Australian Institute of Criminology, full report(pdf):

…Human trafficking presents different challenges from domestic crimes, like sexual assault, because of its often transnational nature and the potential involvement of a network of facilitators in a number of countries… This paper argues that we need to be aware of trends, internationally and in the region, to ensure we have early warning of activities that could impact on the level and type of trafficking to Australia, and to ensure we are providing the most effective responses to prevent and detect trafficking. This paper provides an overview of the challenges involved in obtaining reliable information on the trafficking process.

Homicide in Australia : 2005-06 National Homicide Monitoring Program annual report, published by the Australian Institute of Criminology, full report (pdf):

This report presents information on the circumstances and characteristics of homicide in Australia in 2005-06… The report examines the factors which appear to have driven the increase, which includes increases in the number of females killed (87 females killed in 2004-05 compared with 113 females killed in the current year). Stranger homicides also increased from 19 percent in 2004-05 to 26 percent in the current year. While there are noted increases in the current year, comparisons with previous years such as 2003-04 indicate the trends are quite similar.

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Docuticker round-up

ex libris gul law reports collectionLatest criminal justice-related reports from Docuticker

Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation (22 June), published by International Association of Chiefs of Police. Pdf here.

Managing Sex Offenders: Citizens Supporting Law Enforcement: A Resource for Law Enforcement (22 June), published by International Association of Chiefs of Police. Pdf here.

Private Criminal Justice (22 June), an article in Wake Forest Law Review (via SSRN). Pdf via here.

Testing for Racial Profiling in Traffic Stops From Behind a Veil of Darkness (20 June), published by RAND Corporation. Pdf here (originally published in: Journal of the American Statistical Association, September 2006, Vol. 101, No. 475, pp. 878-887).

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Docuticker round-up

ex libris gul law reports collectionLatest criminal justice-related reports from Docuticker :

Convergences and Omissions in the Reporting of Corporate and White Collar Crime (5 June) – published by Yale Law School Student Scholarship Series, a paper that “develops a novel argument for improving reporting measures in the areas of corporate and white collar crime”. [PDF download]

Explaining the Prevalence, Context, and Consequences of Dual Arrest in Intimate Partner Cases (11 June) – published by National Institute of Justice, a report on “arrests for domestic violence in states with mandatory arrest laws and preferred arrest laws”. [PDF Download]

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report 2007 (13 June) – published by U.S. Department of State [full report available here ]

What About Me? Coping With the Abduction of a Brother or Sister (15 June) – a publication from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, providing examples of what to expect and how to cope when a sibling is abducted, written by siblings of children who have been abducted [PDF download]

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New publications from the UK Home Office

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Three new publications this from the Home Office Research Development and Statistics Division.

First, marking the 200th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in Britain, a report on human trafficking.  Online Report 10/07 – Trafficking for the purposes of labour exploitation: a literature review is available to download as a full text, pdf document.

This report summarises the findings from a review of literature on trafficking of people to the UK for the purposes of labour exploitation. The review both develops the evidence base and identifies knowledge gaps in this area. The findings are split into two parts, the first on adult victims and the second on children.

Next, an evaluation of a scheme for drug using offenders.  Online Report 06/07 – The evaluation of the Restriction on Bail Pilot Final report is also available as a full text pdf document.

This report presents the findings from the evaluation of the Restriction on Bail pilot (RoB). RoB was introduced in 3 pilot sites in May 2004 and provides for a restriction on court bail for adult defendants who have tested positive for a specified class A drug and whose offence is a drug offence or believed to be related to, or motivated by, their drug misuse. RoB gives drug using offenders the choice of attending an assessment and any relevant treatment/follow-up or face the risk of being denied bail and remanded in custody.

Finally Home Office Statistical Bulletin 05/07 presents Statistics for mentally disordered offenders 2005 (England and Wales) (pdf).

Latest forensic-relevant reports from Docuticker

Forensically-relevant reports from Docuticker. Follow the links for more details and, in most cases, links to downloadable papers:

New publications from UK Home Office

Many new reports available from the UK Home Office Research Development and Statistics site

Findings 261 – Findings from the 2003 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey: alcohol-related crime and disorder.

Findings 264 – The Voluntary Assisted Return and Reintegration Programme (VARRP) 2003: an evaluation

Online Report 25/05 – The feasibility of using electronic job search facilities in prison

Online Report 27/05 – Facilitating witness co-operation in organised crime cases: an international review

Online Report 29/05 – Sizing the unauthorised (illegal) migrant population in the United Kingdom in 2001

Online Report 30/05 – The economic and social costs of crime against individuals and households 2003/04

Online Report 31/05 – Policing and the Criminal Justice System ? Public Confidence & Perceptions: Findings from the 2003/04 BCS

Online Report 32/05 – Action research study of the implementation of the National Offender Management Model in the North West Pathfinder

Online Report 34/05 – Fraud & Technology Crimes report; findings from the 2002/03 British Crime Survey and the 2003 Offending Crime and Justice Survey

Online Report 35/05 – Penalty notices for disorder statistics 2004 England and Wales

Organized Crime and Human Trafficking in Canada

New report on RCMP website Organized Crime and Human Trafficking in Canada: Tracing Perceptions and Discourses
Christine Bruckert Ph.D., Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa andColette Parent Ph. D., Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa
In the 1990s the trafficking and smuggling of persons emerged as a subject of debate in Canada and internationally. In particular the locus of concern, embodied in the image of the ?sex slave?, was women trafficked by crime syndicates to work in the commercial sex trade. The lack of definitional consensus, theoretical frameworks or solid empirical research in support of underlying assumptions notwithstanding, the United Nations and countries around the world including Canada adopted a particular discourse that informed policies to address the issue. In this report the findings from a three part study that offers a preliminary analysis into the intersection and interaction between official legislatively-enshrined discourses, judicial rulings, and the understanding and knowledge of criminal justice professionals and sex trade worker advocates, are presented.
http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/ccaps/orgcrime_human_e.htm

Blunkett law will free UK’s domestic slaves

The Guardian Thursday November 11, 2004
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1348220,00.html
A new criminal offence is to be created by the home secretary, David Blunkett, in an attempt to deal with the problem of Britain’s secret slaves who are brought into the country by wealthy families and virtually imprisoned in their homes. He made the announcement as official figures showed that nearly 91,000 people from the new eastern members of the European Union, including Poland, registered to work in Britain from May to September, making a collective ??120m contribution to the British economy and paying a further ??20m in taxes and national insurance. Immigration critics claimed that the figures showed that the numbers who have come had far outstripped initial academic estimates but the Home Office said that 45% of those who had registered were already in Britain before the May 1 accession date and had used the workers’ registration scheme to legalise their status.

Characteristics of Chinese Human Smugglers

Characteristics of Chinese Human Smugglers
National Institute of Justice, August 2004
This NIJ Research in Brief presents findings of a study that uncovered the inner workings of Chinese human smuggling organizations by going right to the source-smugglers themselves. Researchers found that most human smugglers are ordinary citizens whose social networks provide the necessary connections and resources to profit from human trade. Enforcement efforts need to consider the unique organization of smuggling enterprises and how smugglers are perceived by themselves and their clients. http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/204989.pdf