Security Dialogue, Vol. 35, No. 4, 465-479 (2004)
http://sdi.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/35/4/465?ct Girl Soldiers: Human Security and Gendered Insecurity – Mary-Jane Fox
The aim of this article is to make a preliminary attempt to explore the extent to which the subject of girl soldiers might fit into discussions of security. The empirical study of girl soldiers falls within the larger issue of child soldiers, which has received wide exposure in recent years, though there have been few attempts to conceptualize or attach theory to it. This is even more so in regard to girl soldiers, who until recently were barely acknowledged or noticed, though they arecurrently estimated to comprise somewhere between one-tenth and one-third of all child soldiers. Gender and security literature has also tended to overlook girl soldiers, and there are limitations on applying gender theory to the plight of recruited girls. Although the subjectof girl soldiers is difficult to locate within traditional state-military security or social security discussions, it appears to fall squarelywithin the human security approach. In spite of the weaknesses ofthe human security concept, its strengths create a security space in which the gendered insecurities of girl soldiers can be recognized and addressed.
The Guardian November 18, 2004
Child abusers in Canada who have been befriended by groups of volunteers rarely reoffend. Could the same happen here?
How do we protect our children from the threats posed by predatory paedophiles? As a criminologist specialising in this issue, and as a father of two young children, I am often asked what steps I take to ensure my own children’s safety. Reminding questioners that, on average, only six children per year are abducted and murdered by strangers, and that far more children are murdered and sexually abused within the family, offers no consolation. “But what if it was your child that was one of those six?” comes the inevitable reply.
It is then that I mention a Canadian scheme that challenges our assumptions about what we should do to prevent more children becoming victims – a project which has been shown to reduce the predicted rate of reoffending by more than 70%, compared to the UK Prison Service’s sex offender treatment programme, which, on average, produces reductions of just 10%-15%.
See also: ‘Make friends with a paedophile’ – http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4031625.stm
Wednesday, November 17, 2004 Press Herald online http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/state/041117abuse.shtml
The best time to catch criminals may be while they’re still in diapers. That’s the advice from a panel of child welfare and criminal justice officials, who released a report Tuesday showing that abused or neglected children are more likely to become criminals or abuse their own children. The report, by the Maine chapter of Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, says that helping first-time mothers raise their infants can reduce the likelihood of abuse. It calls on the state and federal governments to increase funding to agencies that coach new parents. “We are creating new criminals and new victims every single day by allowing abuse and neglect to continue,” said Attorney General Steven Rowe. There were 3,746 documented cases of child abuse and neglect in Maine in 2002, with three children dying from it, according to the report. Unreported cases of child abuse may push the total to 10,000, it said. Fight Crime: Invest in Kids website: http://www.fightcrime.org/ Fight Crime: Invest in Kids press release: http://www.fightcrime.org/releases.php?id=116
The Independent, 17 November 2004 http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/crime/story.jsp?story=583675
A massive review of more than 30,000 children who were taken from their parents and put into care has found that just one case was based on flawed evidence.The nine-month investigation undermines claims that thousands of parents have been unfairly accused of abusing their children as a result of wrong medical advice.The review was ordered in January after Angela Cannings was cleared on appeal of murdering her three babies. Mrs Cannings had been convicted and jailed on the basis of evidence provided by the later-discredited paediatrician Professor Sir Roy Meadow.
Health Behavior News Service, Oct. 21, 2004
Adults who were abused or neglected as children tend to visit doctors more often than those who did not suffer abuse or neglect, a study in Great Britain has found. “Many patients visit doctors with symptoms that cannot be explained by underlying physical disease” says researcher Francis Creed, M.D., of the University of Manchester. Common examples are headache, abdominal and chest pains and constant tiredness
Creed and colleagues have been studying medically unexplained symptoms for some time, and their new findings suggest that among people with medically unexplained symptoms, those who report childhood adversity go to doctors more often than those who have not experienced adversity during childhood or those whose symptoms can be explained by a recognized medical illness. These patients might benefit from a combination of antidepressant medications and talk therapy, the researchers say. The research findings appear in the journal General Hospital Psychiatry.
Lakehead U Researcher Receives Funding to Study Effects of Abuse and Neglect on Children’s Memory
Canada Newswire, 26 Oct http://www.newswire.ca/en/releases/archive/October2004/26/c4639.html A Lakehead University researcher has teamed with colleagues at the University of Rochester, New York, to look into the memory processes in abused and neglected children. Dr. Mark L. Howe, a professor of psychology at Lakehead, along with Dante Cicchetti and Sheree Toth, both with the Mt. Hope Family Centre in Rochester, were recently awarded a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research grant valued at over $1.5 million US.
“The main focus of this research project is to assess whether experiences of child maltreatment affect the operation of memory in abused and neglected children,” says Dr. Howe. “These findings will not only have important theoretical implications, but will also play a key role in forensic settings, have consequences for the clinical treatment of these children, and inform social policy regarding these children. This project will have significant implications for society regarding planning for the needs of children who have been physically abused, sexually abused, or neglected.”
Mayo Clinic Press Release4-Oct-2004
Teaching skills, instilling confidence best ways to prevent child abduction – ‘Stranger danger’ lessons alone don??t protect children
Parents and pediatricians could be doing more to prevent child abductions, says a new clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Daniel Broughton, M.D., a pediatrician at Mayo Clinic and former director of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children agrees. “Rather than teaching children to fear strangers, which is at best, woefully inadequate, we need to use positive messages,” says Dr. Broughton. “Children need to learn skills and confidence, not fear and avoidance.” Dr. Broughton is one of the authors of the newly published American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Report entitled, “The Pediatrician’s Role in the Prevention of Missing Children.” Published in the October issue of Pediatrics, the report offers prevention strategies for pediatricians to share with families. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2004-10/mc-tsi100104.php
One third of internet child porn users are also abusers
The Herald, Sept 17 2004
AT least one out of three people caught with child pornography have been involved in the physical abuse of infants, according to new research. John Carr, internet consultant for NCH Action for Children, said it was vital that when someone was caught with child porn, exhaustive checks were carried out to see if they were also physical abusers. He told a child protection conference in Aberdeen, at-tended by more than 400 UK professionals, that the US Postal Inspection Service had investigated all 3000 people it had arrested since 1997 on suspicion of possessing child porn. More than one third were found to be guilty of abuse.
Child abuse, child pornography and the internet
A new study from NCH analyses the distribution of child pornography on the internet and its links to child abuse, drawing together current evidence for the first time. The report sets out proposals aimed at protecting children and reducing the amount of child pornography in circulation. Download a summary of the report : http://www.nch.org.uk/downloads/children_internet_report_summ.pdf
Eye in the sky tracks child sex offenders
The Times, 2 Sept 2004
PAEDOPHILES and wife-beaters are to be tracked by satellite in pilot schemes to be announced today by David Blunkett. Trials of surveillance equipment will involve 120 sex offenders, wife-beaters and prolific juvenile and adult offenders and will last a year. The tests will be held in Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and Hampshire, after which a decision will be taken on extending satellite tracking throughout England and Wales. At the unveiling of the trials in Manchester today, Mr Blunkett will tell police and probation officers that greater use of technology to track criminals will be part of the law-and-order agenda if Labour wins a third term in office. A Home Office source said: ??These are pilots to test the technology. It is about indicating the direction in which we wish to go in using technology to provide greater protection for the public and to deter crime.?? Forty offenders in each area will take part in the pilots which involve the global positioning system. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-1242598,00.html Further coverage: http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/crime/story.jsp?story=557427 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3620024.stm http://news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=3442082 http://tinyurl.com/64z44 (The Telegraph)
BBC News Online, 19 August, 2004
Many abused babies ‘hurt again’
One in three babies who are returned to their families after suffering abuse are harmed again, a study suggests. Researchers at Cardiff and Keele Universities said their findings showed child protection teams were not doing enough to protect young children. The findings, published in Archives of Disease in Childhood, have prompted calls for a review of current policies.
[…] Dr Martin Ward-Platt, deputy editor of Archives of Disease in Childhood and a Newcastle-based paediatrician […] said there had been a number of high-profile cases, such as that of Victoria Climbie, where children had remained in abusive situations with fatal consequences. He said cases like that were likely to be the “tip of the iceberg”. “There is likely to be a lot of child misery going on under the surface.” Dr Ward-Platt said there was a public perception that “over-zealous” social workers and doctors were recommending children should be removed from innocent families. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3576250.stm Archives of disease in childhood: http://adc.bmjjournals.com/