Category Archives: Miscellaneous

Racial profiling study from RAND

RAND Corporation Press release, August 24, 2004

STUDY OF RACIAL PROFILING IN OAKLAND FINDS MIXED EVIDENCE OF BIAS IN STOP DECISIONS; EVIDENCE OF BIAS IN SEARCHES
A study released today by the Oakland, Calif., Police Department??s Racial Profiling Task Force found mixed evidence of whether racial bias was involved in the initial decision by police to stop particular motorists, but evidence of racial bias in certain traffic enforcement actions by police, including weapons searches of motorists stopped by officers. The study, conducted for the Task Force by the RAND Corporation, analyzed traffic stop information in two different ways, with one finding some evidence and another finding no evidence of racial bias in officers?? decision to stop motorists. http://www.rand.org/news/press.04/08.24.html

2 articles: Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113(3)

Two articles from Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 113(3), Aug 04
http://www.psycinfo.com/psycarticles/index.cfm?fuseaction=toc&jrn=abn&vol=113&iss=3

Predicting Abuse in Adolescent Dating Relationships Over 1 Year: The Role of Child Maltreatment and Trauma by Wolfe, David A.; Wekerle, Christine; Scott, Katreena; Straatman, Anna-Lee; Grasley, Carolyn

Three mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dating violence perpetration during midadolescence (i.e., trauma-related symptoms, attitudes justifying dating violence, and empathy and self-efficacy in dating relationships) were tested over 1 year with a sample of students from 10 high schools (N = 1,317). Trauma-related symptoms had a significant cross-time effect on predicting incidents of dating violence for both boys and girls. Attitudes and empathy and self-efficacy did not predict dating violence over time, although they were correlated with such behavior at both time points. Child maltreatment is a distal risk factor for adolescent dating violence, and trauma-related symptoms act as a significant mediator of this relationship. The importance of longitudinal methodology that separates correlates from predictors is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychopathy and Comorbidity in a Young Offender Sample: Taking A Closer Look At Psychopathy’s Potential Importance Over Disruptive Behavior Disorders, by Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.; Neumann, Craig S.; DiCicco, Tina M.; Duros, Rachel L.

The authors examined the construct of psychopathy as applied to 130 adolescent offenders using 3 psychopathy measures and a broad range of DSM-TV Axis I diagnoses and psychosocial problems. Measures used in the study included the following: (a) Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL- PCLYV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003), (b) Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; YV; P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, 2002), (c) a modified version of the Self-Report Psychopathy-II scale (SRP-II; R. D. Hare, 1991b), and (d) the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS; W. M. Reynolds, 1998). Results from this study offer incremental support for the construct validity of psychopathy in youth. Psychopathy evidenced better convergent and discriminant validity results than did the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) such as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Despite this finding, psychopathy scales nonetheless correlated with other forms of psychopathology at a higher rate than was expected, suggesting that comorbidity is high even when psychopathy is used as a classification scheme. Also, hierarchical multiple regression was used to determine whether psychopathy offered an improvement in the prediction of previous violent and nonviolent offenses. The results for the current study were mixed, with only the PCL-YV significantly predicting previous violent and nonviolent offenses beyond the DBDs. The findings indicate that psychopathy may offer incremental improvement over DBDs with regard to level of comorbidity and perhaps even prediction. However, simply extending the adult construct of psychopathy to youth without considering the array of psychopathology that may accompany adolescent psychopathy could be misleading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)